Amoxicillin Uses, Dosage, Side Effects , Formulations and Method of Action

Amoxicillin formerly amoxycillin which is also known as Amox (abbreviated) or Tormoxin is a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, ß-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms.

Uses Of Amoxicillin

Amoxicillin is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better absorbed, following oral administration, than other ß-lactam antibiotics.
Amoxicillin is used for the treatment of infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis), lungs (pneumonia), urinary tract, and skin. It also is used to treat gonorrhea and cystic acne.

Mode of action

Amoxicillin acts by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell wall. It inhibits cross-linkage between the linear peptidoglycan polymer chains that make up a major component of the cell walls of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Amoxicillin Dosage

The adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours or 250 mg every 8 hours, 875 mg every 12 hours or 500 mg every 8 hours The dosage depends on the type and the severity of infection to be treated.
For children whose weight is less than 40 kg, the dosage is 25 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours or 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours. Children weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed as per the adult dosage.

Amoxicillin Formulations

Amoxicillin in trihydrate form is available as capsules, chewable and dispersible tablets plus syrup and pediatric suspension for oral use, and as the sodium salt for intravenous administration. It is one of the most common antibiotics prescribed for children, and the liquid forms are helpful where the patient might find it difficult to take tablets or capsules.

Amoxicillin Side Effects And Allergic Reactions

Side effects caused by Amoxicillin are the same as those for other beta-lactam antibiotics. Side effects include nausea, vomiting, rashes and antibiotic associated colitis. Loose bowel movements (diarrhea) also may occur.
The onset of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin can be very sudden and intense. Emergency medical attention must be sought as quickly as possible in all such cases. The initial onset of such a reaction often starts with a change in mental state and skin rash with intense itching which often begins in fingertips and around groin area and spreads rapidly. Sensations of fever, nausea and vomiting may also occur. In additions, other symptoms that seem even remotely suspicious must be taken very seriously.

Non-Allergic Amoxicillin Rash

Somewhere between 3% to 10% of children taking amoxicillin or ampicillin and have never taken penicillin-like medication previously show a late-developing often itchy rash that occurs more than 72 hours after beginning medication, which is sometimes referred to as the "amoxicillin rash." The rash can also occur in adults.
The difference between this common amoxicillin rash and a dangerous allergic reaction cannot easily be distinguished by inexperienced persons, and therefore a health professional should be consulted if a rash develops.

Availability And Packaging

Amoxicillin is available in the form of Generic Amoxil Capsules in 250mg and 500mg doses.
It is also available under several other generic names like Actimoxi, Alphamox, Amocla, AMK, Amoksibos, Amoxiclav Sandoz, Amoxidal, Amoxin, Amoksiklav, Amoxibiotic, Amoxicilina, Apo-Amoxi, Augmentin, Bactox, Betalaktam, Cilamox, Curam, Dedoxil, Dispermox, Duomox, E-Mox, Enhancin, Gimalxina, Geramox, Hiconcil, Isimoxin, Klavox, Lamoxy, Moxatag, Moxilen, Moxypen, Moxyvit, Nobactam, Novamoxin, Ospamox, Panklav, Pamoxicillin, Panamox, Polymox, Samthongcillin, Clamoxyl, Senox, Sinacilin, Trimox, Tolodina, Tormoxin, Wymox, Yucla, Zerrsox and Zimox.

Further Information

Manufacturers pamphlet: GlaxoSmithKline Amoxil - Prescribing information



Considerable portions of the text here is from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amoxicillin and is reproduced here under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License