Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride (Generic Cipro) - Product information and Uses

Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class. It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial. It kills bacteria by interfering with the enzymes that cause DNA to rewind after being copied, which stops synthesis of DNA and of protein.
Ciprofloxacin is used to treat a number of infections including infections of bones and joints, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, malignant otitis externa, respiratory tract infections, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, prostatitis, anthrax, chancroid. It is also used to treat Urinary tract infections, Acute uncomplicated cystitis in females, Chronic bacterial prostatitis, Lower respiratory tract infections Acute sinusitis, Skin and skin structure infections, Bone and joint infections, Infectious diarrhea and Typhoid fever (enteric fever) caused by Salmonella typhi.

Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride - Availability And Packaging

Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride is available as Generic Cipro Pills under brand names Ciplox, Baycip, Ciloxan, Ciflox, Cipro, Cipro XR, Cipro XL, Ciproxin, Prociflor, Ciprex and Proquin which are packaged in 250 mg and 500 mg tablets.

Side Effects of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride (Generic Cipro)

In most patients the side effects of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride are mild to moderate. However, occasionally serious adverse effects occur. In 2004, the U.S. FDA requested new warning labels to be added to all of the fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, regarding peripheral neuropathy (irreversible nerve damage), tendon damage, heart problems (prolonged QT Interval / torsades de pointes), pseudomembranous colitis, rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, as well as concurrent usage of NSAIDs contributing to the severity of these reactions. Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including ciprofloxacin.The serious adverse effects that may occur as a result of ciprofloxacin therapy include irreversible peripheral neuropathy, spontaneous tendon rupture and tendonitis, acute liver failure or serious liver injury (hepatitis), QTc prolongation/torsades de pointes, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, severe central nervous system disorders (CNS) and Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD: pseudomembranous colitis), as well as photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions.
Psychotic reactions and confusional states, acute pancreatitis, bone marrow depression, interstitial nephritis and hemolytic anemia may also occur during ciprofloxacin therapy. Additional serious adverse reactions include temporary, as well as permanent, loss of vision, irreversible double vision, drug induced psychosis and chorea (involuntary muscle movements), impaired color vision, exanthema, abdominal pain, malaise, drug fever, dysaesthesia and eosinophilia. Pseudotumor cerebri, commonly known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), (also referred to as increased intracranial pressure), has been reported to occur as a serious adverse reaction to ciprofloxacin.
In 2011 he FDA has added two black box warnings for this drug in reference to spontaneous tendon ruptures and the fact that ciprofloxacin may cause worsening of myasthenia gravis symptoms, including muscle weakness and breathing problems. Such an adverse reaction is a potentially life-threatening event and may require ventilatory support.

Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride (Generic Cipro) - Contraindications

The Contraindications of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride (Generic Cipro) are

  • Coadministration of ciprofloxacin with other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 results in increased plasma concentrations of these drugs and could lead to clinically significant adverse events of the coadministered drug.
  • Concomitant administration with tizanidine is contraindicated.
  • Ciprofloxacin is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, any member of the quinolone class of antimicrobial agents, or any of the product components.
  • Local I.V. site reactions are more frequent if the infusion time is 30 minutes or less. These may appear as local skin reactions that resolve rapidly upon completion of the infusion. Subsequent intravenous administration is not contraindicated unless the reactions recur or worsen.
  • Ciprofloxacin is also now considered to be contraindicated for the treatment of certain sexually transmitted diseases by some experts due to bacterial resistance.

 

Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride (Generic Cipro) - Dosage

The recommended adult dose is given below. The dosage varies as per the infection being treated.
Urinary Tract Infection
Acute Uncomplicated 250 mg every 12 hours for 3 Days
Mild/Moderate 250 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 Days
Severe/Complicated 500 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 Days
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
Mild/Moderate 500 mg every 12 hours for 28 Days
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Mild/Moderate 500 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days
Severe/Complicated 750 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days
Acute Sinusitis Mild/Moderate 500 mg every 12 hours for 10 days
Skin and Skin Structure
Mild/Moderate 500 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 Days
Severe/Complicated 750 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 Days
Bone and Joint
Mild/Moderate 500 mg every 12 hours for greater than or equal to 4 to 6 weeks
Severe/Complicated 750 mg every 12 hours for greater than or equal to 4 to 6 weeks
Intra-Abdominal Infection
Complicated 500 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 Days
Infectious Diarrhea
Mild/Moderate/Severe 500 mg every 12 hours for 5 to 7 Days
Typhoid Fever
Mild/Moderate 500 mg every 12 hours for 10 Days
Urethral and Cervical Gonococcal Infections Uncomplicated 250 mg single dose single dose
Inhalational anthrax (post-exposure)
500 mg every 12 hours 60 Days

Overdosage and Overdose Symptoms of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride (Generic Cipro)

Overdose of ciprofloxacin may result in reversible renal toxicity. Treatment of overdose includes emptying of the stomach via induced vomiting or by gastric lavage. Careful monitoring and supportive treatment, monitoring of renal function and maintaining adequate hydration is recommended by the manufacturer. Administration of magnesium, aluminum, or calcium containing antacids can reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis removes only less than 10 percent of ciprofloxacin.
Ciprofloxacin may be quantitated in plasma or serum to monitor for drug accumulation in patients with hepatic dysfunction or to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in acute overdose victims.

 

Additional Information

Additional Info: Prescribing Information



Considerable portions of the text here is from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciprofloxacin and is reproduced here under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License